Senegal st ein Staat in Westafrika, am Atlantik gelegen. Senegal liegt im äußersten Westen Afrikas. Es liegt im Übergang der Sahelzone zu den Tropen. Östliches Nachbarland ist Mali. Im Norden grenzt Senegal mit dem Grenzfluss Senegal an Mauretanien und im Süden an Guinea und Guinea-Bissau. Senegal umschließt das ebenfalls am Atlantik liegende Gambia vollständig.
The French colonies of Senegal and the French Sudan were merged in 1959 and granted their independence as the Mali Federation in 1960. The union broke up after only a few months. Senegal joined with The Gambia to form the nominal confederation of Senegambia in 1982, but the envisaged integration of the two countries was never carried out, and the union was dissolved in 1989. The Movement of Democratic Forces in the Casamance (MFDC) has led a low-level separatist insurgency in southern Senegal since the 1980s, and several peace deals have failed to resolve the conflict. Nevertheless, Senegal remains one of the most stable democracies in Africa. Senegal was ruled by a Socialist Party for 40 years until current President Abdoulaye WADE was elected in 2000. He was reelected in February 2007, but has amended Senegal's constitution over a dozen times to increase executive power and weaken the opposition, part of the President's increasingly autocratic governing style. Senegal has a long history of participating in international peacekeeping and regional mediation.