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Country Judical branch
Afghanistan the Bonn Agreement calls for the establishment of a Supreme Court
 
Albania Supreme Court (chairman is elected by the People's Assembly for a four-year term)
 
Algeria Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
 
American Samoa High Court (chief justice and associate justices are appointed by the US Secretary of the Interior)
 
American Virgin Islands US District Court of the Virgin Islands (under Third Circuit jurisdiction); Territorial Court (judges appointed by the governor for 10-year terms)
 
Andorra Tribunal of Judges or Tribunal de Batlles; Tribunal of the Courts or Tribunal de Corts; Supreme Court of Justice of Andorra or Tribunal Superior de Justicia d'Andorra; Supreme Council of Justice or Consell Superior de la Justicia; Fiscal Ministry or Ministeri Fiscal; Constitutional Tribunal or Tribunal Constitucional
 
Angola Supreme Court or Tribunal da Relacao (judges are appointed by the president)
 
Anguilla High Court (judge provided by Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court)
 
Antigua and Barbuda Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based in Saint Lucia; one judge of the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands and presides over the Court of Summary Jurisdiction)
 
Argentina Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (the nine Supreme Court judges are appointed by the president with approval by the Senate)
 
Armenia Supreme Court; Constitutional Court
 
Aruba Joint High Court of Justice (judges are appointed by the monarch)
 
Australia High Court (the chief justice and six other justices are appointed by the governor general)
 
Austria Supreme Judicial Court or Oberster Gerichtshof; Administrative Court or Verwaltungsgerichtshof; Constitutional Court or Verfassungsgerichtshof
 
Azerbaijan Supreme Court
 
Bahamas, The Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; magistrates courts
 
Bahrain High Civil Appeals Court
 
Bangladesh Supreme Court (the chief justices and other judges are appointed by the president)
 
Barbados Supreme Court of Judicature (judges are appointed by the Service Commissions for the Judicial and Legal Services)
 
Belarus Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president); Constitutional Court (half of the judges appointed by the president and half appointed by the Chamber of Representatives)
 
Belgium Supreme Court of Justice or Hof van Cassatie (in Dutch) or Cour de Cassation (in French) (judges are appointed for life by the monarch, although selected by the Government)
 
Belize Supreme Court (the chief justice is appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister)
 
Benin Constitutional Court or Cour Constitutionnelle; Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; High Court of Justice
 
Bermuda Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Magistrate Courts
 
Bhutan Supreme Court of Appeal (the monarch); High Court (judges appointed by the monarch)
 
Bolivia Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges appointed for 10-year terms by National Congress); District Courts (one in each department); provincial and local courts (to try minor cases)
 
Bosnia and Herzegovina BiH Constitutional Court (consists of nine members: four members are selected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of Representatives, two members by the Republika Srpska's National Assembly, and three non-Bosnian members by the president of the European Court of Human Rights) note: a new state court, mandated in November 2000, has jurisdiction over cases related to state-level law and appellate jurisdiction over cases initiated in the entities; the entities each have a Supreme Court; each entity also has a number of lower courts; there are 10 cantonal courts in the Federation, plus a number of municipal courts; the Republika Srpska has five municipal courts
 
Botswana High Court; Court of Appeal; Magistrates' Courts (one in each district)
 
Brazil Supreme Federal Tribunal (11 ministers are appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate); Higher Tribunal of Justice; Regional Federal Tribunals (judges are appointed for life)
 
British Virgin Islands Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court, consisting of the High Court of Justice and the Court of Appeal (one judge of the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands and presides over the High Court); Magistrate's Court; Juvenile Court; Court of Summary Jurisdiction
 
Brunei Supreme Court (chief justice and judges are sworn in by the monarch for three-year terms)
 
Bulgaria Supreme Administrative Court; Supreme Court of Cassation; Constitutional Court (12 justices appointed or elected for nine-year terms); Supreme Judicial Council (consists of the chairmen of the two Supreme Courts, the Chief Prosecutor, and 22 other members; responsible for appointing the justices, prosecutors, and investigating magistrates in the justice system; members of the Supreme Judicial Council elected for five-year terms, 11 elected by the National Assembly and 11 by bodies of the judiciary)
 
Burkina Faso Supreme Court; Appeals Court
 
Burma remnants of the British-era legal system are in place, but there is no guarantee of a fair public trial; the judiciary is not independent of the executive
 
Burundi Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; Constitutional Court; Courts of Appeal (there are three in separate locations); Tribunals of First Instance (17 at the province level and 123 small local tribunals)
 
Cambodia Supreme Council of the Magistracy (provided for in the constitution and formed in December 1997); Supreme Court (and lower courts) exercises judicial authority
 
Cameroon Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president); High Court of Justice (consists of nine judges and 6 substitute judges, elected by the National Assembly)
 
Canada Supreme Court of Canada (judges are appointed by the prime minister through the governor general); Federal Court of Canada; Federal Court of Appeal; Provincial Courts (these are named variously Court of Appeal, Court of Queens Bench, Superior Court, Supreme Court, and Court of Justice)
 
Cape Verde Supreme Tribunal of Justice or Supremo Tribunal de Justia
 
Cayman Islands Summary Court; Grand Court; Cayman Islands Court of Appeal
 
Central African Republic Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; Constitutional Court (3 judges appointed by the president, 3 by the president of the National Assembly, and 3 by fellow judges); Court of Appeal; Criminal Courts; Inferior Courts
 
Chad Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Criminal Courts; Magistrate Courts
 
Chile Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges are appointed by the president and ratified by the Senate from lists of candidates provided by the court itself; the president of the Supreme Court is elected by the 21-member court); Constitutional Tribunal
 
China Supreme People's Court (judges appointed by the National People's Congress); Local Peoples Courts (comprise higher, intermediate and local courts); Special Peoples Courts (primarily military, maritime, and railway transport courts)
 
Christmas Island Supreme Court; District Court; Magistrate's Court
 
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Supreme Court; Magistrate's Court
 
Colombia four, coequal, supreme judicial organs; Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justical (highest court of criminal law; judges are selected from the nominees of the Higher Council of Justice for eight-year terms); Council of State (highest court of administrative law, judges are selected from the nominees of the Higher Council of Justice for eight-year terms); Constitutional Court (guards integrity and supremacy of the constitution, rules on constitutionality of laws, amendments to the constitution, and international treaties); Higher Council of Justice (administers and disciplines the civilian judiciary; members of the disciplinary chamber resolve jurisdictional conflicts arising between other courts; members are elected by three sister courts and Congress for eight-year terms)
 
Comoros Supreme Court or Cour Supremes (two members appointed by the president, two members elected by the Federal Assembly, one elected by the Council of each island, and others are former presidents of the republic)
 
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
 
Congo, Republic of the Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
 
Cook Islands High Court
 
Costa Rica Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (22 justices are elected for eight-year terms by the Legislative Assembly)
 
Cote d'Ivoire Supreme Court or Cour Supreme consists of four chambers: Judicial Chamber for criminal cases, Audit Chamber for financial cases, Constitutional Chamber for judicial review cases, and Administrative Chamber for civil cases; there is no legal limit to the number of members
 
Croatia Supreme Court; Constitutional Court; judges for both courts appointed for eight-year terms by the Judicial Council of the Republic, which is elected by the House of Representatives
 
Cuba People's Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo Popular (president, vice president, and other judges are elected by the National Assembly)
 
Cyprus Supreme Court (judges are appointed jointly by the president and vice president) note: there is also a Supreme Court in the Turkish Cypriot area
 
Czech Republic Supreme Court; Constitutional Court; chairman and deputy chairmen are appointed by the president for a 10-year term
 
Denmark Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the monarch for life)
 
Djibouti Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
 
Dominica Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court, consisting of the Court of Appeal and the High Court (located in Saint Lucia; one of the six judges must reside in Dominica and preside over the Court of Summary Jurisdiction)
 
Dominican Republic Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges are elected by a Council made up of members of the legislative and executive branches with the president presiding)
 
Ecuador Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (new justices are elected by the full Supreme Court)
 
Egypt Supreme Constitutional Court
 
El Salvador Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges are selected by the Legislative Assembly)
 
Equatorial Guinea Supreme Tribunal
 
Eritrea High court, regional, subregional, and village courts; also have military and special courts
 
Estonia National Court (chairman appointed by Parliament for life)
 
Ethiopia Federal Supreme Court (the president and vice president of the Federal Supreme Court are recommended by the prime minister and appointed by the House of People's Representatives; for other federal judges, the prime minister submits to the House of People's Representatives for appointment candidates selected by the Federal Judicial Administrative Council)
 
European Union European Court of Justice (ensures that the treaties are interpreted and applied correctly) - 25 Justices (one from each member state) appointed for a six-year term; note - for the sake of efficiency, the court can sit with 11 justices known as the "Grand Chamber"; Court of First Instance - 25 justices appointed for a six-year term
 
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Supreme Court (chief justice is a nonresident); Magistrates Court (senior magistrate presides over civil and criminal divisions); Court of Summary Jurisdiction
 
Faroe Islands none
 
Fiji Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president); Court of Appeal; High Court; Magistrates' Courts
 
Finland Supreme Court or Korkein Oikeus (judges appointed by the president)
 
France Supreme Court of Appeals or Cour de Cassation (judges are appointed by the president from nominations of the High Council of the Judiciary); Constitutional Council or Conseil Constitutionnel (three members appointed by the president, three appointed by the president of the National Assembly, and three appointed by the president of the Senate); Council of State or Conseil d'Etat
 
French Guiana Court of Appeals or Cour d'Appel (highest local court based in Martinique with jurisdiction over Martinique, Guadeloupe, and French Guiana)
 
French Polynesia Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; Court of the First Instance or Tribunal de Premiere Instance; Court of Administrative Law or Tribunal Administratif
 
Gabon Supreme Court or Cour Supreme consisting of three chambers - Judicial, Administrative, and Accounts; Constitutional Court; Courts of Appeal; Court of State Security; County Courts
 
Gambia, The Supreme Court
 
Georgia Supreme Court (judges elected by the Supreme Council on the president's recommendation); Constitutional Court
 
Germany Federal Constitutional Court or Bundesverfassungsgericht (half the judges are elected by the Bundestag and half by the Bundesrat)
 
Ghana Supreme Court
 
Gibraltar Supreme Court; Court of Appeal
 
Greece Supreme Judicial Court; Special Supreme Tribunal; all judges appointed for life by the president after consultation with a judicial council
 
Greenland High Court or Landsret (appeals can be made to the Ostre Landsret or Eastern Division of the High Court or Supreme Court in Copenhagen)
 
Grenada West Indies Associate States Supreme Court (an associate judge resides in Grenada)
 
Guadeloupe Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel with jurisdiction over Guadeloupe, French Guiana, and Martinique
 
Guam Federal District Court (judge is appointed by the president); Territorial Superior Court (judges appointed for eight-year terms by the governor)
 
Guatemala Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (thirteen members serve concurrent five-year terms and elect a president of the Court each year from among their number; the president of the Supreme Court of Justice also supervises trial judges around the country, who are named to five-year terms); Constitutional Court or Corte de Constitutcionalidad (five judges are elected for concurrent five-year terms by Congress, each serving one year as president of the Constitutional Court; one is elected by Congress, one elected by the Supreme Court of Justice, one appointed by the President, one elected by Superior Counsel of Universidad San Carlos de Guatemala, and one by Colegio de Abogados)
 
Guernsey Royal Court
 
Guinea Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel
 
Guinea-Bissau Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal da Justica (consists of nine justices who are appointed by the president and serve at his pleasure; final court of appeals in criminal and civil cases); Regional Courts (one in each of nine regions; first court of appeals for Sectoral Court decisions; hear all felony cases and civil cases valued at over $1,000); 24 Sectoral Courts (judges are not necessarily trained lawyers; they hear civil cases under $1,000 and misdemeanor criminal cases)
 
Guyana Supreme Court of Judicature; Judicial Court of Appeal; High Court
 
Haiti Supreme Court or Cour de Cassation
 
Holy See (Vatican City) there are three tribunals responsible for civil and criminal matters within Vatican City; three other tribunals rule on issues pertaining to the Holy See note: judicial duties were established by the Motu Proprio of Pius XII on 1 May 1946
 
Honduras Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (judges are elected for seven-year terms by the National Congress)
 
Hong Kong The Court of Final Appeal in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
 
Hungary Constitutional Court (judges are elected by the National Assembly for nine-year terms)
 
Iceland Supreme Court or Haestirettur (justices are appointed for life by the president)
 
India Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president and remain in office until they reach the age of 65)
 
Indonesia Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung (justices appointed by the president from a list of candidates approved by the legislature); note - the Supreme Court is preparing to assume administrative responsibility for the federal court system, previously run by the executive
 
Iran Supreme Court
 
Iraq Court of Cassation
 
Ireland Supreme Court (judges appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister and cabinet)
 
Isle of Man High Court of Justice (justices are appointed by the Lord Chancellor of England on the nomination of the lieutenant governor)
 
Israel Supreme Court (justices appointed for life by the president)
 
Italy Constitutional Court or Corte Costituzionale (composed of 15 judges: one-third appointed by the president, one-third elected by Parliament, one-third elected by the ordinary and administrative Supreme Courts)
 
Jamaica Supreme Court (judges appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister); Court of Appeal
 
Japan Supreme Court (chief justice is appointed by the monarch after designation by the cabinet; all other justices are appointed by the cabinet)
 
Jersey Royal Court (judges elected by an electoral college and the bailiff)
 
Jordan Court of Cassation; Supreme Court (court of final appeal)
 
Kazakhstan Supreme Court (44 members); Constitutional Council (7 members)
 
Kenya Court of Appeal (chief justice is appointed by the president); High Court
 
Kiribati Court of Appeal; High Court; 26 Magistrates' courts; judges at all levels are appointed by the president
 
Korea, North Central Court (judges are elected by the Supreme People's Assembly)
 
Korea, South Supreme Court (justices are appointed by the president with the consent of the National Assembly)
 
Kuwait High Court of Appeal
 
Kyrgyzstan Supreme Court (judges are appointed for 10-year terms by the Supreme Council on the recommendation of the president); Constitutional Court; Higher Court of Arbitration
 
Laos People's Supreme Court (the president of the People's Supreme Court is elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the National Assembly Standing Committee; the vice president of the People's Supreme Court and the judges are appointed by the National Assembly Standing Committee)
 
Latvia Supreme Court (judges' appointments are confirmed by Parliament)
 
Lebanon four Courts of Cassation (three courts for civil and commercial cases and one court for criminal cases); Constitutional Council (called for in Ta'if Accord - rules on constitutionality of laws); Supreme Council (hears charges against the president and prime minister as needed)
 
Lesotho High Court (chief justice appointed by the monarch); Court of Appeal; Magistrate's Court; customary or traditional court
 
Liberia Supreme Court
 
Libya Supreme Court
 
Liechtenstein Supreme Court or Oberster Gerichtshof; Superior Court or Obergericht
 
Lithuania Constitutional Court; Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; judges for all courts appointed by the President
 
Luxembourg judicial courts and tribunals (3 Justices of the Peace, 2 district courts, and 1 Supreme Court of Appeals); administrative courts and tribunals (State Prosecutor's Office, administrative courts and tribunals, and the Constitutional Court); judges for all courts are appointed for life by the monarch
 
Macau The Court of Final Appeal in the Macau Special Administrative Region
 
Macedonia Supreme Court - Parliament appoints the judges; Constitutional Court - Parliament appoints the judges; Republican Judicial Council - Parliament appoints the judges
 
Madagascar Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; High Constitutional Court or Haute Cour Constitutionnelle
 
Malawi Supreme Court of Appeal; High Court (chief justice appointed by the president, puisne judges appointed on the advice of the Judicial Service Commission); magistrate's courts
 
Malaysia Federal Court (judges appointed by the paramount ruler on the advice of the prime minister)
 
Maldives High Court
 
Mali Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
 
Malta Constitutional Court; Court of Appeal; judges for both courts are appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister
 
Marshall Islands Supreme Court; High Court
 
Martinique Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel
 
Mauritania Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; Court of Appeals; lower courts
 
Mauritius Supreme Court
 
Mayotte Supreme Court or Tribunal Superieur d'Appel
 
Mexico Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (judges are appointed by the president with consent of the Senate)
 
Micronesia, Federated States of Supreme Court
 
Moldova Supreme Court; Constitutional Court (the sole authority for constitutional judicature)
 
Monaco Supreme Court or Tribunal Supreme (judges appointed by the monarch on the basis of nominations by the National Council)
 
Mongolia Supreme Court (serves as appeals court for people's and provincial courts, but rarely overturns verdicts of lower courts; judges are nominated by the General Council of Courts for approval by the president)
 
Montserrat Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based in Saint Lucia, one judge of the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands and presides over the High Court)
 
Morocco Supreme Court (judges are appointed on the recommendation of the Supreme Council of the Judiciary, presided over by the monarch)
 
Mozambique Supreme Court (the court of final appeal; some of its professional judges are appointed by the president and some are elected by the Assembly); other courts include an Administrative Court, customs courts, maritime courts, courts marshal, labor courts note: although the constitution provides for the creation of a separate Constitutional Court, one has never been established; in its absence the Supreme Court reviews constitutional cases
 
Namibia Supreme Court (judges appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Judicial Service Commission)
 
Nauru Supreme Court
 
Nepal Supreme Court or Sarbochha Adalat (chief justice is appointed by the monarch on recommendation of the Constitutional Council; the other judges are appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the Judicial Council)
 
Netherlands Supreme Court or Hoge Raad (justices are nominated for life by the monarch)
 
Netherlands Antilles Joint High Court of Justice (judges appointed by the monarch)
 
New Caledonia Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; County Courts; Joint Commerce Tribunal Court; Children's Court
 
New Zealand High Court; Court of Appeal
 
Nicaragua Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (16 judges elected for five-year terms by the National Assembly)
 
Niger State Court or Cour d'Etat; Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel
 
Nigeria Supreme Court (judges appointed by the President); Federal Court of Appeal (judges are appointed by the federal government on the advice of the Advisory Judicial Committee)
 
Niue Supreme Court of New Zealand; High Court of Niue
 
Norfolk Island Supreme Court; Court of Petty Sessions
 
Northern Mariana Islands Commonwealth Supreme Court; Superior Court; Federal District Court
 
Norway Supreme Court or Hoyesterett (justices appointed by the monarch)
 
Oman Supreme Court note: the nascent civil court system, administered by region, has non-Islamic judges as well as traditional Islamic judges
 
Pakistan Supreme Court (justices appointed by the president); Federal Islamic or Shari'a Court
 
Palau Supreme Court; National Court; Court of Common Pleas
 
Panama Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (nine judges appointed for 10-year terms); five superior courts; three courts of appeal
 
Papua New Guinea Supreme Court (the chief justice is appointed by the governor general on the proposal of the National Executive Council after consultation with the minister responsible for justice; other judges are appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission)
 
Paraguay Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (judges appointed on the proposal of the Counsel of Magistrates or Consejo de la Magistratura)
 
Peru Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (judges are appointed by the National Council of the Judiciary)
 
Philippines Supreme Court (justices are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Judicial and Bar Council and serve until 70 years of age)
 
Pitcairn Islands Island Court (island magistrate presides over the court and is elected every three years)
 
Poland Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the National Council of the Judiciary for an indefinite period); Constitutional Tribunal (judges are chosen by the Sejm for nine-year terms)
 
Portugal Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal de Justica (judges appointed for life by the Conselho Superior da Magistratura)
 
Puerto Rico Supreme Court; Appellate Court; Court of First Instance composed of two sections: a Superior Court and a Municipal Court (justices for all these courts appointed by the governor with the consent of the Senate)
 
Qatar Court of Appeal
 
Reunion Court of Appeals or Cour d'Appel
 
Romania Supreme Court of Justice (judges are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Superior Council of Magistrates)
 
Russia Constitutional Court; Supreme Court; Superior Court of Arbitration; judges for all courts are appointed for life by the Federation Council on the recommendation of the president
 
Rwanda Supreme Court; communal courts; appeals courts
 
Saint Kitts and Nevis Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based on Saint Lucia; one judge of the Supreme Court resides in Saint Kitts and Nevis)
 
Saint Lucia Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (jurisdiction extends to Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, the British Virgin Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines)
 
Saint Pierre and Miquelon Superior Tribunal of Appeals or Tribunal Superieur d'Appel
 
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based on Saint Lucia; one judge of the Supreme Court resides in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines)
 
Samoa Supreme Court; Court of Appeal
 
San Marino Council of Twelve or Consiglio dei XII
 
Sao Tome and Principe Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the National Assembly)
 
Saudi Arabia Supreme Council of Justice
 
Senegal Constitutional Court; Council of State; Court of Final Appeals or Cour de Cassation; Court of Appeals; note-the judicial system was reformed in 1992
 
Seychelles Court of Appeal; Supreme Court; judges for both courts are appointed by the president
 
Sierra Leone Supreme Court; Appeals Court; High Court
 
Singapore Supreme Court (chief justice is appointed by the president with the advice of the prime minister, other judges are appointed by the president with the advice of the chief justice); Court of Appeals
 
Slovakia Supreme Court (judges are elected by the National Council); Constitutional Court (judges appointed by president from group of nominees approved by the National Council)
 
Slovenia Supreme Court (judges are elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the Judicial Council); Constitutional Court (judges elected for nine-year terms by the National Assembly and nominated by the president)
 
Solomon Islands Court of Appeal
 
Somalia following the breakdown of national government, most regions have reverted to Islamic (Shari'a) law with a provision for appeal of all sentences
 
South Africa Constitutional Court; Supreme Court of Appeals; High Courts; Magistrate Courts
 
Spain Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo
 
Sri Lanka Supreme Court; Court of Appeals; judges for both courts are appointed by the president
 
Sudan Supreme Court; Special Revolutionary Courts
 
Suriname Court of Justice (justices are nominated for life)
 
Swaziland High Court; Court of Appeal; judges for both courts are appointed by the monarch
 
Sweden Supreme Court or Hogsta Domstolen (judges are appointed by the prime minister and the cabinet)
 
Switzerland Federal Supreme Court (judges elected for six-year terms by the Federal Assembly)
 
Syria Supreme Constitutional Court (justices are appointed for four-year terms by the president); High Judicial Council; Court of Cassation; State Security Courts
 
Taiwan Judicial Yuan (justices appointed by the president with consent of the National Assembly; note - beginning in 2003, justices will be appointed by the president with consent of the Legislative Yuan)
 
Tajikistan Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president)
 
Tanzania Permanent Commission of Enquiry (official ombudsman); Court of Appeal (consists of a chief justice and four judges); High Court (consists of a Jaji Kiongozi and 29 judges appointed by the president; holds regular sessions in all regions); District Courts; Primary Courts (limited jurisdiction and appeals can be made to the higher courts)
 
Thailand Supreme Court or Sandika (judges appointed by the monarch)
 
Timor-Leste Supreme Court of Justice, one judge appointed by the National Parliament and the rest appointed by the Superior Council for the Judiciary
 
Togo Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
 
Tokelau Supreme Court in New Zealand exercises civil and criminal jurisdiction in Tokelau
 
Tonga Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the monarch); Court of Appeal (consists of the Privy Council with the addition of the chief justice of the Supreme Court)
 
Trinidad and Tobago Supreme Court of Judicature (comprised of the High Court of Justice and the Court of Appeals; the chief justice is appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister and the leader of the opposition; other justices are appointed by the president on the advice of the Judicial and Legal Service Commission); High Court of Justice; Court of Appeals the highest court of appeal is the Privy Council in London
 
Tunisia Court of Cassation or Cour de Cassation
 
Turkey Constitutional Court (judges are appointed by the president); Court of Appeals (judges are elected by the Supreme Council of Judges and Prosecutors)
 
Turkmenistan Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president)
 
Turks and Caicos Islands Supreme Court
 
Tuvalu High Court (a chief justice visits twice a year to preside over its sessions; its rulings can be appealed to the Court of Appeal in Fiji); eight Island Courts (with limited jurisdiction)
 
Uganda Court of Appeal (judges are appointed by the president and approved by the legislature); High Court (judges are appointed by the president)
 
Ukraine Supreme Court; Constitutional Court
 
United Arab Emirates Union Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president)
 
United Kingdom House of Lords (highest court of appeal; several Lords of Appeal in Ordinary are appointed by the monarch for life); Supreme Courts of England, Wales, and Northern Ireland (comprising the Courts of Appeal, the High Courts of Justice, and the Crown Courts); Scotland's Court of Session and Court of the Justiciary
 
United States Supreme Court (its nine justices are appointed for life by the president with confirmation by the Senate); United States Courts of Appeal; United States District Courts; State and County Courts
 
Uruguay Supreme Court (judges are nominated by the president and elected for 10-year terms by the General Assembly)
 
Uzbekistan Supreme Court (judges are nominated by the president and confirmed by the Supreme Assembly)
 
Vanuatu Supreme Court (chief justice is appointed by the president after consultation with the prime minister and the leader of the opposition, three other justices are appointed by the president on the advice of the Judicial Service Commission)
 
Venezuela Supreme Tribunal of Justice or Tribuna Suprema de Justicia (magistrates are elected by the National Assembly for a single 12-year term)
 
Vietnam Supreme People's Court (chief justice is elected for a five-year term by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president)
 
Wallis and Futuna none; justice generally administered under French law by the high administrator, but the three traditional kings administer customary law and there is a magistrate in Mata-Utu
 
Yemen Supreme Court
 
Zambia Supreme Court (the final court of appeal; justices are appointed by the president); High Court (has unlimited jurisdiction to hear civil and criminal cases)
 
Zimbabwe Supreme Court; High Court
 

Source: CIA World Factbook. This page was last updated on 12/25/10

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